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Rivers of India
The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity.
71. Sabarmati River
The Sabarmati river is one of the biggest rivers of Gujarat. It originates in Dhebar lake in Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Cambay of Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km in a southwesterly direction. The Sabarmati basin has a maximum length of 300 km. and maximum width of 105 km. The total catchment area of the basin is 21674 km2 out of which, 4124 km2 lies in Rajasthan State and the remaining 18550 km2 in Gujarat State. The National Water Quality Programme led by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) positions Sabarmati River as one of the most polluted rivers in India.Sabarmati River Basin is situated in the midsouthern part of Rajasthan. To its east lie the Banas and Mahi Basins, to its north the Luni Basin and to its west the West Banas Basin. Its southern boundary is the border with Gujarat State. The Sabarmati river basin extends over parts of Udaipur, Sirohi, Pali and Dungarpur Districts. Orographically, the western part of the Basin is marked by hilly terrain belonging to the Aravali chain. East of the hills lies a narrow alluvial plain with a gentle eastward slope. The main tributaries of the Sabarmati river are Wakal river and the Sei Nadi, which also rise in the Aravali hill range west of Udaipur city and flow southwestwards in courses generally parallel to the Sabarmati river, up to their confluence with the river (in Gujarat). Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, the commercial and political capitals of Gujarat, were established on the banks of Sabarmati river. The legend is that Sultan Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, resting on the bank of Sabarmati, was inspired by the courage of a rabbit chasing a dog to the extent of establishing Ahmedabad in 1411. The Sabarmati area on the banks of the river is rich. During Indias independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi established Sabarmati Ashram as his home on the banks of this river.
The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan.The Sutlej is sometimes known as the Red River. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. Its source is Lake Rakshastal in Tibet. From there, under the Tibetan name Langq
73. Suru River
The Suru River is a 185 kilometres (115 mi) long river, that originates from the Panzella glacier which lies at Pensi La pass near the Drang Drung Glacier. The Drang Drung Glacier also gives rise to the Stod River which flows down in the opposite direction from the Suru. The source of the Suru River lies 142 kilometres (88 mi) south of Kargil town, and 79 kilometres (49 mi) north from Zanskar. Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir lies 331 kilometres (206 mi) to the west. The Suru River forms the western and northern boundary of the Zanskar Range. The river flows westwards, along with the KargilZanaskar Road, from its source and forms the Suru valley, which is towered by the massif of Nun Kun mountain. It drains the Nun Kun mountain massif of the Zanskar Range in the Suru valley, and is joined by a tributary Shafat Nala at the pastures of Gulmatango. This stream originates from the Shafat Glacier. The Suru River then flows northwards through a deep, narrow gorge to Kargil town, where it is fed by the Botkul River which originates from the glacier of the same name.The Dras River, fed by the Shingo River, joins the Suru River at Kharul, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north of Kargil town. The Suru River then enters the Pakistani Administered Kashmir 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) ahead from the point of merger of Dras and Suru rivers through Post 43 and Post 44 of India and Pakistan respectively and merges with the Indus River at Nurla.
74. Dras River
The Dras River is 86 km (53 mi) long and flows entirely in the Dras Valley. Its source lies in the Machoi Glacier near Zojila Pass, the gateway to Ladakh, 26 km (16 mi) east of Sonamarg and 120 km (75 mi) east of Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The Machoi Glacier is also the source of the Sind River, which flows through the neighbouring Kashmir Valley in the opposite direction to the Dras River. The Dras River flows northeast, fed by many glacial streams. NH 1D, a national highway connecting Srinagar with Leh, runs parallel to the river. The river forms the Dras Valley at Dras, where it is joined by two tributaries, the Mashko Nala and Gamru Nala, which originate in the glaciers of Mashko Valley. In the Dras Valley, the road connecting Dras and Gurais runs parallel to the river.
75. Markha River
The Markha River is a river in Ladakh, India. It is a tributary of the Zanskar River. The Markha Valley is the most popular trekking route in Ladakh, accessible from Ganda La pass near Spituk in the west and Gongmaru La pass near Hemis. On top of the valley you can find the Kang Yatze, a 6,400 m (21,000 ft) high mountain. The Markha River also passes to the south of the 6,153 m (20,182 feet) high Stok Kangri mountain.
76. Tsarap River
The Tsarap River or the Tsarap Chu is a river 182 kilometres (113 mi) long, which forms the eastern part of the Zanskar valley, in the Ladakh region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.The Tsarap River has its source in the glaciers near Pankpo La Pass at the border of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. After rising from its source, the Tsarap River flows southwest up to Sarchu, a camping site at the LehManali Highway, here the Tsarap River joins a confluent of three rivers of Lingti, Yunan and Sarchu River. At village Purne, the Tsarap River is joined by Kargyag River which originates near Shingo La pass. Then the Tsarap River flows down in the main Zanskar valley, through the towns of Mone, Tichip, Jamyang Lang, Dorzong and Chia. The river then passes a confluence with its tributary, the Stod River, at Padum, the capital of Zanskar. Together, these two rivers form the Zanskar River, a tributary of the Indus River. The Tsarap River contributes to the minimal agricultural production of the Zanskar valley, mainly to the lower areas of Chia, by providing irrigation to the fields of barley, wheat, buckwheat and peas. Accessible in the summer, the Pensi La mountain pass which connects Zanskar with rest of the country, receives heavy snowfall along with the other pass Zojila, which results in the valley is cut off during winter from rest of the state, and the river freezes during this season. The river source at Pankpo La near Sarchu lies 255 kilometres (158 mi) southeast from the nearest airport of Leh. The Tsarap River is famous for adventure sports. Rafting events are organised in the Tsarap, Stod and the Zanskar rivers.
77. Doda River
The Doda River or the Stod River is a river 79 kilometres (49 mi) long, which forms the Stod Valley in the Zanskar valley of the Ladakh region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.The Doda River rises from the DrangDrung Glacier near Pensi La, a mountain pass off the ZanskarKargil road. The DrangDrung Glacier is a river of ice and snow by itself and is the largest glacier other than the Siachen Glacier in Ladakh outside the Karakoram Range. It gives rise to a mountain peak named Doda Peak, 21,490 ft (6,550 metres) high, and it is the namesake for the Doda district, which lies in the rear side of the glacier; the Doda River is also known as Stod River.After rising from its source, the Doda River flows southeast down along the Kargil Zanskar road in the main Zanskar valley, through the towns of Akshu, Abran, Kushol and Phey. The river then passes a confluence with its tributary, the Tsarap River, at Padum, the capital of Zanskar. Together, these two rivers form the Zanskar River, a tributary of the Indus River.
78. Pavana River
Pavana River is a notable river crossing the cities of PimpriChinchwad and Pune in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The river originates south of Lonavala from the Western Ghats, and flows a total of nearly 60 kilometres (37 mi) to meet the Mula river in Pune.
79. Mandakini River
Mandakini is a tributary of the Alaknanda River. Mandakini originates from the Chorabari Glacier near Kedarnath in Uttarakhand, India. Mandakini is fed by Vasukiganga River at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alaknanda then proceeds towards Devaprayag where it joins with Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges River. Mandakini river flows along NH107 in Rudraprayag district and turns violent during monsoon, often destroying parts of highway and adjoining villages.
The Mahanadi is a major river in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 square kilometres (54,700 sq mi) and has a total course of 858 kilometres (533 mi). The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
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