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Precautions while using Oxygen Therapy
safety tips for preventing accidents when using oxygen therapy.
61. As a drug delivery route
Oxygen and other compressed gasses are used in conjunction with a nebulizer for topical delivery of medications to the upper and lower airways. Nebulizers use compressed gas to propel liquid medication into an aerosol, with specific therapeutically sized droplets, for deposition in the appropriate, desired airway. Compressed gas, usually at flows of 8 10 L/min, is used to nebulize medications, saline and sterile water into a theraputeic aerosol for inhalation. In the clinical setting room air (ambient mix of several gasses), Oxygen and Heli Ox gas are commonly used to nebulize small, large and continuous volumes of liquid.
62. Filtered oxygen masks
Filtered oxygen masks have the ability to prevent exhaled, potentially infectious particles from being released into the surrounding environment. These masks are normally of a closed design such that leaks are minimized and breathing of room air is controlled through a series of one way valves. Filtration of exhaled breaths is accomplished either by placing a filter on the exhalation port, or through an integral filter that is part of the mask itself. These masks first became popular in the Toronto (Canada) healthcare community during the 2003 SARS Crisis. SARS was identified as being respiratory based and it was determined that conventional oxygen therapy devices were not designed for the containment of exhaled particles. Common practices of having suspected patients wear a surgical mask was confounded by the use of standard oxygen therapy equipment. In 2003, the HiOx80 oxygen mask was released for sale. The HiOx80 mask is a closed design mask that allows a filter to be placed on the exhalation port. Several new designs have emerged in the global healthcare community for the containment and filtration of potentially infectious particles. Other designs include the ISO O 2 oxygen mask, the Flo2Max oxygen mask, and the O Mask. The use of oxygen masks that are capable of filtering exhaled particles is gradually becoming a recommended practice for pandemic preparation in many jurisdictions.
63. Negative effects
Many EMS protocols indicate that oxygen should not be withheld from any patient, while other protocols are more specific or circumspect. However, there are certain situations in which oxygen therapy is known to have a negative impact on a patient
64. Oxygen therapy while on aircraft
In the United States, most airlines restrict the devices allowed on board aircraft. As a result passengers are restricted in what devices they can use. Some airlines will provide cylinders for passengers with an associated fee. Other airlines allow passengers to carry on approved portable concentrators. However the lists of approved devices varies by airline so passengers need to check with any airline they are planning to fly on.
65. Use in acute conditions
Oxygen is widely used in emergency medicine, both in hospital and by emergency medical services or those giving advanced first aid. In the pre hospital environment, high flow oxygen is definitively indicated for use in resuscitation, major trauma, anaphylaxis, major haemorrhage, shock, active convulsions and hypothermia. It may also be indicated for any other patient where their injury or illness has caused hypoxaemia, although in this case oxygen flow should be moderated to achieve target oxygen saturation levels, based on pulse oximetry (with a target level of 94
66. Storage and sources
Gas cylinders containing oxygen to be used at home. When in use a pipe is attached to the cylinders regulator and then to a mask that fits over the patients nose and mouth. A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an emphysema patients house. Oxygen can be separated by a number of methods, including chemical reaction and fractional distillation, and then either used immediately or stored for future use.
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